Inheritance rules on mother’s earnings

21 Aug 2019 Ref-No#: 2138

Asalaamalaikum warahmatullah,

I would like to ask a question regarding inheritance especially in the modern day and age where women are now also more often then not, earning money from their own occupations.

I know in Islam traditionally a boy receives 2 shares and a girl 1, however is that purely on inheritance from their father’s estate what about anything they may inherit from their mother’s earnings?

I myself work and so does my husband, his earnings go towards the day to day running of our household and rent and bills and food.

Any money i earn, goes into savings which we then invest into assests for our children.

If i keep track of assests bought with my earnings only can I gift it to my 2 daughters so that when my husband and I no longer are around or whilst we are alive they can inherit the same amount as their 2 brothers.

Because i am assuming that from the father’s side the boys will get 2/6 of a share and our daughters 1/6. Or does this rule apply to inheritance from a mother too even if she has earned it herself.

I ask this question as i believe a women’s earnings are hers alone and she can spend it how she wants.

As 2nd generation muslims i feel i would like to provide for my daugthers the same amount of wealth as my sons so is it possible to do that by gifting them a top up from my own earnings either when i am alive or does it have to be bequeathed to them when i die.

I have personally witnessed the hardship of having to be a muslim girl in the west married and not having the luxury to live with my parents after my marriage and neither have any one from my in laws side i could live with rent free either.

I have had to work harder and at times when i didnt want to whereas i saw my brothers who were at different stages of life some married some not living rent free.

I chose not to lie and not to claim benefits or ask anyone else for help and my husband and i strived and Alhamdulliah he is very supportive.

However i do not want my daughters to ever have to go through that inshAllah and I ask these questions to see if it is possible to give them finacial aid through inheritance or before as a gift so they don’t have to go through what I did.

I look forward to your answer.

JazzakAllah khair for providing this service.

Answer

Wa’alaykum as Salam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu,

The laws of inheritance have been clearly outlined in the Quran.

When a parent dies, whether male or female, the sons will get double the share of the daughters.

The whole objective is for the surviving husband and sons to look after the females.

In essence, the males get double, but that is gross. The entire share of the female is nett.

Bring up your sons in a way that you can be sure that they will look after their sisters.

Whilst you are alive, you are at liberty to distribute your wealth as you wish. Whilst it is strongly recommended to maintain equality when giving gifts to your children, if you only give gifts to your daughters, it will be permissible.

 

 

References

{ يُوصِيكُمُ اللَّهُ فِي أَوْلَادِكُمْ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنْثَيَيْنِ فَإِنْ كُنَّ نِسَاءً فَوْقَ اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُنَّ ثُلُثَا مَا تَرَكَ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ وَاحِدَةً فَلَهَا النِّصْفُ وَلِأَبَوَيْهِ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ مِمَّا تَرَكَ إِنْ كَانَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَوَرِثَهُ أَبَوَاهُ فَلِأُمِّهِ الثُّلُثُ فَإِنْ كَانَ لَهُ إِخْوَةٌ فَلِأُمِّهِ السُّدُسُ مِنْ بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِي بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ لَا تَدْرُونَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ لَكُمْ نَفْعًا فَرِيضَةً مِنَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا (11) وَلَكُمْ نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ أَزْوَاجُكُمْ إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُنَّ وَلَدٌ فَإِنْ كَانَ لَهُنَّ وَلَدٌ فَلَكُمُ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْنَ مِنْ بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِينَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ وَلَهُنَّ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَإِنْ كَانَ لَكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَلَهُنَّ الثُّمُنُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ تُوصُونَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ وَإِنْ كَانَ رَجُلٌ يُورَثُ كَلَالَةً أَوِ امْرَأَةٌ وَلَهُ أَخٌ أَوْ أُخْتٌ فَلِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ فَإِنْ كَانُوا أَكْثَرَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ فِي الثُّلُثِ مِنْ بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصَى بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ غَيْرَ مُضَارٍّ وَصِيَّةً مِنَ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَلِيمٌ} [النساء: 12]

 (وأما) كيفية العدل بينهم فقد قال أبو يوسف العدل في ذلك أن يسوي بينهم في العطية ولا يفضل الذكر على الأنثى وقال محمد العدل بينهم أن يعطيهم على سبيل الترتيب في المواريث للذكر مثل حظ الأنثيين كذا ذكر القاضي الاختلاف بينهما في شرح مختصر الطحاوي وذكر محمد في الموطإ ينبغي للرجل أن يسوي بين ولده في النحل ولا يفضل بعضهم على بعض. وظاهر هذا يقتضي أن يكون قوله مع قول أبي يوسف وهو الصحيح لما روي أن بشيرا أبا النعمان أتى بالنعمان إلى رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – فقال إني نحلت ابني هذا غلاما كان لي فقال له رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – كل ولدك نحلته مثل هذا فقال لا فقال النبي – عليه الصلاة والسلام – فأرجعه وهذا إشارة إلى العدل بين الأولاد في النحلة وهو التسوية بينهم ولأن في التسوية تأليف القلوب والتفضيل يورث الوحشة بينهم فكانت التسوية  ) حاشية ابن عابدين  6/ 127)